Biology O Level Notes

500.00

Book Code : 206
Number of Pages : 135
Author : Zafar Sulehri
Language : English
Publishers : Read and Write Publications

 

Categories: ,

Description

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Unit-1 Cell Structure and Organization …………………………………………………………………………….. 8
1.1 Plant and animal cells: …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
1.2 Specialized cells, tissues and organs: ……………………………………………………………………… 11
Unit-2 Diffusion and Osmosis ………………………………………………………………………………………… 16
2.1 Diffusion: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16
2.2 Osmosis: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16
2.3 Active transport: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18
Unit 3 Enzyme ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20
3.1 Enzyme action: …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20
3.2 Factors affecting the rate of an enzyme action: …………………………………………………………. 20
Unit-4 Plant Nutrition……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
4.1 Photosynthesis: …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24
4.2 Structure of dicot leaf: ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 27
4.3 Mineral nutrition: …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 28
Unit-5 Animal Nutrition ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 30
5.1 Nutrients: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30
5.2 Diet: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 30
5.3 World food supplies: ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 40
5.4 Digestion in humans: …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 40
5.5 Chemical digestion:……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 44
5.6 Absorption and assimilation: …………………………………………………………………………………… 45
Unit-6 Transport in Flowering Plants ……………………………………………………………………………… 48
6.1 Water and ion uptake: ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 50
Unit-7 Transport in Humans …………………………………………………………………………………………… 54
7.1 Blood circulatory system: ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 54
Unit 8 Respiration ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62
8.1 Aerobic respiration: ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62
8.2 Anaerobic respiration: ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 62
8.3 Human gas exchange ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 64
Unit-9 Excretion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 70
9.1 Structure and function of kidneys ……………………………………………………………………………. 70
9.2 Kidney dialysis: …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 71
Unit-10 Homeostasis ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 76
10.1 Structure and function of the skin: …………………………………………………………………………… 76
Unit-11 Coordination and Response ………………………………………………………………………………… 80
11.1 Nervous system: …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 80
11.2 Different stimuli and receptors: ……………………………………………………………………………….. 80
11.3 Reflex action: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 82
11.4 Harmone: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 87
Unit-12 Support, Movement and Locomotion …………………………………………………………………… 90
12.1 Bones: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 91
12.2 Joint: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 92
12.3 Antagonistic muscles: ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 93
UNIT-13 The Use and Abuse of Drugs ……………………………………………………………………………….. 96
13.1 Antibiotics: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 96
13.2 Heroin: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 97
13.3 Effects of alcohol:………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 97
13.4 Effects of tobacco smoke: ………………………………………………………………………………………. 98
Unit-14 Microorganisms and Biotechnology …………………………………………………………………… 102
14.1 Microorganisms: ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 102
14.2 Food biotechnology: ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 105
14.3 Industrial biotechnology: ………………………………………………………………………………………. 106
Unit-15 Relationships of Organisms with One Another and with the Environment …………… 110
15.1 Energy flow: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 110
15.2 Food chain and food webs: …………………………………………………………………………………… 112
15.3 Carbon cycle: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 112
15.4 Nitrogen cycle: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 112
15.5 Parasitism: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 114
15.7 Pollution: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 115
15.8 Conservation: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 117
Unit-16 Development of Organisms and Continuity of Life ……………………………………………… 120
16.1 Asexual reproduction: ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 120
16.2 Sexual reproduction in plants: ………………………………………………………………………………. 123
16.3 Sexual reproduction in human: ……………………………………………………………………………… 126
16.4 Sexually transmitted diseases: ……………………………………………………………………………… 129
Unit-17 Inheritance ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 132
17.1 Variation: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 132
17.2 Chromosomes and dna: ………………………………………………………………………………………. 133
17.3 Monohybrid inheritance: ………………………………………………………………………………………. 133
17.4 selection …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 136
17.5 Genetic engineering: ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 137

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