Biology O Level P-6 ATP Notes

700.00

Book Code : 208
Number of Pages : 302
Author : Muhammad Shahid
Language : English
Publishers : Read and Write Publications

 

Categories: ,

Description

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction to ATP paper …………………………………………………………………………………… 10
Unit 1: Cells ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
Preparing a temporary slide of onion epidermis cells ……………………………………………… 12
Observing the effect of surface area on rate of diffusion………………………………………….. 13
Practice Questions related to Cells ……………………………………………………………………… 14
Sample Question (1) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 14
Sample Question (2) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 14
Sample Question (3) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 15
Sample Question (4) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 15
Sample Question (5) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 16
Unit 2: Diffusion and Osmosis …………………………………………………………………………….. 20
Observing the effect of temperature on diffusion ……………………………………………………. 20
Observing the effect of concentration gradient and distance on diffusion …………………… 20
Observing the effect of particle size on diffusion…………………………………………………….. 21
Observing osmosis across partially permeable membrane ………………………………………. 21
Observing effect of water and sugar solution on potato tissue (Method 1) ………………….. 22
Observing effect of water and sugar solution on potato tissue (Method 2) ………………….. 23
Observing plasmolysis ………………………………………………………………………………………. 23
Observing the effects of varying the concentration of sucrose solution on potato tissue .. 24
Observing the partial permeable ability of a membrane …………………………………………… 25
Practice Questions related to Diffusion and Osmosis …………………………………………… 26
Sample Question (1) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 26
Oct/Nov 2011-P61 …………………………………………………………………………………………. 27
Oct/Nov 2013-P62 …………………………………………………………………………………………. 28
Unit 3: Food Tests ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 32
Tests for Carbohydrates …………………………………………………………………………………….. 32
Tests for Fats (The Ethanol Emulsion Test) ………………………………………………………….. 32
Tests for Proteins (The Biuret Test)……………………………………………………………………… 32
Observing presence of vitamins ………………………………………………………………………….. 33
Practice Questions related to Food Tests …………………………………………………………….. 34
May/June 2012-P61, Q3…………………………………………………………………………………. 34
May/June 2012-P62, Q3…………………………………………………………………………………. 35
May/June 2013-P61, Q1…………………………………………………………………………………. 36
May/June 2013-P62, Q2…………………………………………………………………………………. 38
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May/June 2014-P61, Q2…………………………………………………………………………………. 38
May/June 2015-P61, Q1…………………………………………………………………………………. 39
Oct/Nov 2012-P61, Q4 …………………………………………………………………………………… 40
Oct/Nov 2013-P61, Q4 …………………………………………………………………………………… 40
Oct/Nov 2016-P61, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………… 41
Oct/Nov 2014-P62, Q3 …………………………………………………………………………………… 41
Oct/Nov 2015-61, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………….. 41
Oct/Nov 2016-P62, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………… 42
Unit 4: Application of Enzymes ……………………………………………………………………………. 44
Characteristics of Enzymes ………………………………………………………………………………… 44
Extracting and testing enzyme from living cells ……………………………………………………… 44
Observing the effect of temperate on enzyme activity …………………………………………….. 45
Observing the effect of pH on enzyme activity ……………………………………………………….. 46
Practice Questions related to Application of Enzymes ………………………………………….. 48
May/June 2015-P61, Q1…………………………………………………………………………………. 48
May/June 2015-P62, Q3…………………………………………………………………………………. 50
May/June 2016-P61, Q1…………………………………………………………………………………. 51
Oct/Nov 2011-P62, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………… 52
Oct/Nov 2012-P61, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………… 54
Oct/Nov 2012-P62, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………… 57
Unit 5: Photosynthesis ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 62
Testing starch in a leaf ………………………………………………………………………………………. 62
Testing the necessity of chlorophyll for photosynthesis …………………………………………… 62
Testing the necessity of light for photosynthesis…………………………………………………….. 63
Testing the necessity of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis ……………………………………… 63
Testing the production of oxygen as result of photosynthesis …………………………………… 63
Testing the effect of varying light intensity on rate of photosynthesis (Method 1)…………. 64
Testing the effect of varying light intensity on rate of photosynthesis (Method 2)…………. 65
Testing the effect of varying carbon dioxide concentration on rate of photosynthesis. ….. 66
Testing the effect of changing temperature on rate of photosynthesis ……………………….. 67
Observing the importance of different mineral elements in plant growth …………………….. 68
Practice Questions related to Photosynthesis ……………………………………………………… 69
Sample Question (1) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 69
Sample Question (2) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 70
Sample Question (3) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 71
Sample Question (4) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 72
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Sample Question (5) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 73
Unit 6: Nutrition in Human …………………………………………………………………………………… 76
Calculating the energy from food sample ……………………………………………………………… 76
Observing the action of salivary amylase on starch ………………………………………………… 76
Modelling the action of salivary amylase on starch …………………………………………………. 77
Testing the action of pepsin on egg-white protein …………………………………………………… 78
Observing the action of lipase …………………………………………………………………………….. 79
Practice Questions related to Nutrition in Humans ……………………………………………….. 80
Sample Question (1) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 80
Sample Question (2) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 81
Sample Question (3) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 83
Sample Question (4) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 83
Unit 7: Transport in Plants ………………………………………………………………………………….. 86
Observing transport in vascular bundles of plant stem ……………………………………………. 86
Observing transport of water in xylem ………………………………………………………………….. 86
Observing water loss by plant …………………………………………………………………………….. 86
Observing rate of water uptake by plant under varying environmental conditions ………… 87
Observing which surface of leaf loses more water ………………………………………………….. 88
Practice Questions related to Transport in Plants…………………………………………………. 90
Sample Question (1) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 90
Unit 8: Transport in Humans ……………………………………………………………………………….. 92
Observing and dissecting sheep’s or goat’s heart ………………………………………………….. 92
Observing the effect of exercise on pulse rate ……………………………………………………….. 93
Practice Questions related to Transport in Humans ……………………………………………… 94
Sample Question (1) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 94
Sample Question (2) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 95
Sample Question (3) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 97
Sample Question (4) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 97
Unit 9: Respiration ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 100
Observing oxygen in exhaled air ……………………………………………………………………….. 100
Observing carbon dioxide in exhaled air ……………………………………………………………… 100
Calculating the volume of air in lungs …………………………………………………………………. 101
Investigating the effect of exercise on carbon dioxide production ……………………………. 101
Observing the usage of oxygen during respiration (Method I) …………………………………. 102
Observing the usage of oxygen during respiration (Method II) ………………………………… 103
Observing anaerobic respiration by yeast …………………………………………………………… 104
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Practice Questions related to Respiration ………………………………………………………….. 105
Sample Question (1) ……………………………………………………………………………………. 105
Sample Question (2) ……………………………………………………………………………………. 106
Sample Question (3) ……………………………………………………………………………………. 107
Sample Question (4) ……………………………………………………………………………………. 109
Unit 10: Germination …………………………………………………………………………………………. 112
Observing the effect of temperature on rate of respiration of germinating seeds ……….. 112
Observing the release of energy as result of respiration ………………………………………… 112
Investigating the need of water for germination (Method 1) ……………………………………. 113
Investigating the need of water for germination (Method 2) ……………………………………. 113
Investigating the need of suitable temperature for germination ……………………………….. 114
Experimental and Control Group ……………………………………………………………………….. 114
Practice Questions related to Germination …………………………………………………………. 115
Sample Question (1) ……………………………………………………………………………………. 115
Sample Question (2) ……………………………………………………………………………………. 115
Sample Question (3) ……………………………………………………………………………………. 117
Unit 11: Drawings and Labelling ………………………………………………………………………… 120
Parameters of making a larger drawing and labelling it …………………………………………. 120
Practice Questions of Drawings and Labelling ……………………………………………………. 121
May/June 2010-P61, Q3……………………………………………………………………………….. 121
May/June 2010-P62, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 121
May/June 2010-P62, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 122
May/June 2011-P62, Q3……………………………………………………………………………….. 123
May/June 2011-P62, Q3……………………………………………………………………………….. 124
May/June 2012-P61, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 125
May/June 2012-P61, Q3……………………………………………………………………………….. 126
May/June 2012-P62, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 127
May/June 2015-P62, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 128
May/June 2016-P61, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 129
Oct/Nov 2012-P61, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 130
Oct/Nov 2013-P61, Q3 …………………………………………………………………………………. 132
Oct/Nov 2014-P62, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 132
Oct/Nov 2016-P61, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 134
Oct/Nov 2016-P62, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 135
Unit 12: Drawings and Magnification ………………………………………………………………….. 138
How to work out magnification and other sizes of drawings/Images ………………………… 138
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Practice Questions of Drawings and Magnification …………………………………………….. 140
May/June 2010-P61, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 140
May/June 2011-P61, Q3……………………………………………………………………………….. 141
May/June 2011-P62, Q3……………………………………………………………………………….. 141
May/June 2012-P62, Q3……………………………………………………………………………….. 142
May/June 2014-P61, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 143
May/June 2014-P62, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 145
May/June 2015-P61, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 147
May/June 2015-P61, Q3……………………………………………………………………………….. 148
May/June 2015-P62, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 149
Oct/Nov 2010-P61, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 150
Oct/Nov 2010-P62, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 151
Oct/Nov 2011-P61, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 152
Oct/Nov 2011-P61, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 153
Oct/Nov 2012-P62, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 154
Oct/Nov 2013-P62, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 155
Oct/Nov 2014-P61, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 156
Oct/Nov 2015-P61, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 158
Oct/Nov 2015-P61, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 159
Oct/Nov 2015-P62, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 160
Oct/Nov 2016-P61, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 161
Oct/Nov 2016-P62, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 161
Unit 13: Features of a Photograph or Drawing ……………………………………………………. 164
Recognizing and observing features of a photograph or drawing ……………………………. 164
Practice Questions of Features of a Photograph or Drawing ……………………………….. 165
May/June 2010-P61, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 165
May/June 2011-P61, Q3……………………………………………………………………………….. 165
May/June 2011-P62, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 166
May/June 2011-P62, Q3……………………………………………………………………………….. 167
May/June 2012-P61, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 168
May/June 2012-P61, Q3……………………………………………………………………………….. 168
May/June 2015-P62, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 169
May/June 2012-P62, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 169
May/June 2012-P62, Q4……………………………………………………………………………….. 171
May/June 2013-P61, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 172
May/June 2013-P62, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 172
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Oct/Nov 2010-P61, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 173
Oct/Nov 2010-P61, Q3 …………………………………………………………………………………. 174
Oct/Nov 2010-P62, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 175
Oct/Nov 2010-P62, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 176
Oct/Nov 2011-P61, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 177
Oct/Nov 2011-P62, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 178
Oct/Nov 2012-P61, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 179
Oct/Nov 2012-P61, Q3 …………………………………………………………………………………. 180
Oct/Nov 2012-P62, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 181
Oct/Nov 2012-P62, Q3 …………………………………………………………………………………. 182
Oct/Nov 2013-P61, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 183
Oct/Nov 2013-P61, Q3 …………………………………………………………………………………. 184
Oct/Nov 2014-P61, Q3 …………………………………………………………………………………. 185
Oct/Nov 2015-P61, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 186
Oct/Nov 2016-P61, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 187
Oct/Nov 2016-P62, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 188
Oct/Nov 2016-P62, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 188
Unit 14: Graph ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 190
Constructing and interpreting graph …………………………………………………………………… 190
Specific guidelines for a bar chart ……………………………………………………………………… 190
Specific guidelines for a histogram …………………………………………………………………….. 191
Specific guidelines for a line graph …………………………………………………………………….. 191
Specific guidelines for a pie chart ………………………………………………………………………. 191
Practice Questions related to Graph ………………………………………………………………….. 192
May/June 2010-P61, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 192
May/June 2011-P62, Q3……………………………………………………………………………….. 193
May/June 2013-P61, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 194
May/June 2013-P62, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 195
May/June 2016-P61, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 196
Oct/Nov 2014-P61, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 198
Oct/Nov 2016-P62, Q3 …………………………………………………………………………………. 200
Practice Questions for Making Graph and then Suggesting or Concluding …………… 203
May/June 2010-P62, Q3……………………………………………………………………………….. 203
May/June 2011-P61, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 204
May/June 2014-P61, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 206
May/June 2014-P62, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 208
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Oct/Nov 2010-P61, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 211
Oct/Nov 2010-P62, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 212
Oct/Nov 2011-P61, Q3 …………………………………………………………………………………. 214
Oct/Nov 2013-P61, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 216
Oct/Nov 2013-P62, Q3 …………………………………………………………………………………. 219
Oct/Nov 2014-P62, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 222
Oct/Nov 2015-P61, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 225
Oct/Nov 2015-P62, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 226
Unit 15: Water and Carbon Dioxide ……………………………………………………………………. 230
Testing Presence of Carbon dioxide with Hydrogen carbonate Indicator ………………….. 230
Testing Presence of Water with Cobalt Chloride Paper …………………………………………. 230
Practice Questions Related to Testing of Water and Carbon Dioxide ……………………. 231
May/June 2013-P62, Q3……………………………………………………………………………….. 231
May/June 2015-P61, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 231
May/June 2015-P62, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 232
Oct/Nov 2010-P62, Q3 …………………………………………………………………………………. 232
Oct/Nov 2014-P61, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 234
Unit 16: Observations and Deductions ……………………………………………………………….. 236
Techniques to record observations and making deductions …………………………………… 236
Practice Questions Related to Observations and Deductions………………………………. 237
May/June 2012-P61, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 237
May/June 2012-P62, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 238
May/June 2015-P62, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 239
Oct/Nov 2013-P62, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 241
Unit 17: Designing and Planning ……………………………………………………………………….. 244
How to design and plan an investigation …………………………………………………………….. 244
Practice Questions Related to Designing and Planning ………………………………………. 245
May/June 2010-P61, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 245
May/June 2010-P62, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 245
May/June 2011-P61, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 246
May/June 2011-P62, Q3……………………………………………………………………………….. 247
May/June 2012-P61, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 247
May/June 2013-P61, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 248
May/June 2013-P61, Q3……………………………………………………………………………….. 249
May/June 2014-P62, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 250
May/June 2015-P61, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 250
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May/June 2016-P61, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 251
Oct/Nov 2010-P61, Q3 …………………………………………………………………………………. 251
Oct/Nov 2011-P61, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 252
Oct/Nov 2012-P62, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 252
Oct/Nov 2015-P61, Q3 …………………………………………………………………………………. 253
Oct/Nov 2015-P62, Q3 …………………………………………………………………………………. 254
Unit 18: Suggestions and Improvements ……………………………………………………………. 258
Recommending suggestions and making improvements in experimentation …………….. 258
Practice Questions Related to Suggestions and Improvements …………………………… 259
May/June 2010-P61, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 259
May/June 2010-P62, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 259
May/June 2010-P61, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 260
May/June 2010-P62, Q3……………………………………………………………………………….. 261
May/June 2011-P62, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 261
May/June 2011-P62, Q3……………………………………………………………………………….. 263
May/June 2012-P61, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 264
May/June 2014-P62, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 264
May/June 2015-P61, Q3……………………………………………………………………………….. 265
May/June 2015-P62, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 266
May/June 2015-P62, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 267
Oct/Nov 2010-P61, Q3 …………………………………………………………………………………. 268
Oct/Nov 2015-P61, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 269
Oct/Nov 2015-P61, Q3 …………………………………………………………………………………. 270
Oct/Nov 2016-P62, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 271
Unit 19: Interpreting Data and Drawing Conclusion …………………………………………….. 274
Basis of interpreting data and drawing conclusion form that …………………………………… 274
Practice Questions Related to Interpreting Data and Drawing Conclusion ……………. 275
May/June 2010-P61, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 275
May/June 2010-P62, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 276
May/June 2013-P62, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 277
May/June 2014-P61, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 280
May/June 2015-P61, Q2……………………………………………………………………………….. 282
May/June 2016-P61, Q3……………………………………………………………………………….. 283
Oct/Nov 2013-P62, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 284
Oct/Nov 2014-P61, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 287
Oct/Nov 2016-P61, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 289
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Unit 20: Practice Questions related to Measurements …………………………………………. 292
May/June 2012-P61, Q3……………………………………………………………………………….. 292
May/June 2015-P62, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 293
May/June 2012-P62, Q1……………………………………………………………………………….. 294
Oct/Nov 2015-P61, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 295
Oct/Nov 2015-P62, Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 296
Oct/Nov 2016-P61, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 297
Oct/Nov 2014-P62, Q2 …………………………………………………………………………………. 298
Oct/Nov 2016-P61, Q3 …………………………………………………………………………………. 299
Oct/Nov 2016-P62, Q3 …………………………………………………………………………………. 300

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