Chemistry A2-Level Revision Notes Series

600.00

Book Code : 239
Number of Pages : 210
Author : Rasheed Ahmed
Language : English
Publishers : Read and Write Publications

 

Categories: ,

Description

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Unit 1: Chemical Energetics ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
1.1: Lattice Energy (ΔHoLE): …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
1.2: Born Haber Cycle: …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9
1.3: Entropy ‘S’: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13
1.4: Free Energy OR Gibbs Free Energy ‘G’: ………………………………………………………………….. 16
1.5: End of Chapter Past Paper Questions ……………………………………………………………………… 19
Unit 2 Electrochemistry …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 27
2.1: The Relationship, F = L  e: ……………………………………………………………………………………. 27
2.2: Identity of The Substance Liberated During Electrolysis: ……………………………………………. 28
2.3: Electrode Potential ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30
2.4: Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE): ………………………………………………………………………. 31
2.5: Fuel Cell: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 37
2.6: End of Chapter Past Paper Questions ……………………………………………………………………… 39
Unit 3: Equilibria …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 44
3.1: Dissociation Constants: ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 44
3.2: Ionic Product / Dissociation Constant of Water ‘Kw’: ………………………………………………….. 45
3.3: Buffer …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 50
3.4: Solubility Product ‘Ksp’: ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 52
3.5: Common Ion Effect ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53
3.6: Partition Coefficient Kpc: ………………………………………………………………………………………… 55
3.7: End of Chapter Past Paper Questions ……………………………………………………………………… 59
Unit 4: Reaction Kinetics ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 66
4.1: Rate Law and Rate Equation: …………………………………………………………………………………. 66
4.2: Reaction Mechanism ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 69
4.3: Catalysis ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 71
4.4: End of Chapter Past Paper Questions ……………………………………………………………………… 73
Unit 5: Group 2 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 81
5.1: Thermal Stability of Carbonates and Nitrates: …………………………………………………………… 81
5.2: Solubility of Group II Metal Sulphates: ……………………………………………………………………… 81
5.3: End of Chapter Past Paper Questions ………………………………………………………………………….. 83
Unit 6: Transition Elements …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 86
6.1: Electronic Configuration of Atom and Ion of First Series of Transition Elements: …………… 86
6.2 Complexes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 87
6.3: Stereo Isomerism in Transition Element Complexes: …………………………………………………. 89
6.4: Stability Constants in Ligand Exchange Reactions:……………………………………………………. 91
6.5: Colour of Transition Element Complexes: ………………………………………………………………… 91
6.6: End of Chapter Past Paper Questions ……………………………………………………………………… 93
Unit 7: An Introduction to Organic Chemistry ………………………………………………………………….. 97
7.1: Arenes or Aromatic Organic Compounds: ………………………………………………………………… 97
7.2: End of Chapter Past Paper Questions ……………………………………………………………………. 104
Unit 8: Hydroxy Benzene (Phenol) …………………………………………………………………………………. 109
8.1: Phenols ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 109
8.2: Relative Acidities of Phenol, Water and Ethanol………………………………………………………. 109
8.3: Chemical Reaction of Phenols: ……………………………………………………………………………… 110
8.4: End of Chapter Past Paper Questions ……………………………………………………………………. 112
Unit 9: Carboxylic Acids Derivatives ……………………………………………………………………………… 119
9.1: Acidity of Carboxylic Acids and Chlorine Substituted Acids: ……………………………………… 119
9.2: Acyl Chlorides 𝑹 − 𝑶||𝑪 − 𝑪 ………………………………………………………………………………….. 120
9.3: Relative Ease of Hydrolysis of Chloro Compounds: …………………………………………………. 122
9.4: End of Chapter Past Paper Questions ……………………………………………………………………. 123
Unit 10: Nitrogen Compounds ………………………………………………………………………………………… 128
10.1: Amines (R – NH2) ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 128
10.2: Amides 𝑹 − 𝑶||𝑪 − 𝑵𝑯𝟐 ………………………………………………………………………………………. 130
10.3: Amino Acids: H2N – CHR – COOH ………………………………………………………………………… 131
10.4: Electrophoresis……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 132
10.5: Protien Structure: ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 134
10.6: End of Chapter Past Paper Questions ……………………………………………………………………. 136
Unit 11: Polymerisation…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 144
11.1: Condensation Polymers and Polymerisation: ………………………………………………………….. 144
11.2: Deduce Type of Polymerization And Monomer From The Polymer ……………………………. 146
11.3: Designing Special Polymers …………………………………………………………………………………. 146
11.4: Degradable Polymers …………………………………………………………………………………………… 147
11.5: Deoxyribose Nucleic Acids DNA: …………………………………………………………………………… 148
11.6: End of Chapter Past Paper Questions ……………………………………………………………………. 150
Unit 12: Analytical Chemistry ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 159
12.1: Chromatography …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 159
12.2: Mass Spectrometry ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 163
12.3: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy: ……………………………………………….. 166
12.4: Carbon-13 NMR Spectroscopy: …………………………………………………………………………….. 172
12.5: End of Chapter Past Paper Questions ……………………………………………………………………. 174
Unit 13: Organic Synthesis ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 185
13.1: Synthesis of Chiral Drug Molecules ……………………………………………………………………….. 185
13.2: Synthetic Routes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 189
13.3: End of Chapter Past Paper Questions ……………………………………………………………………. 190

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