Chemistry As-Level Revision Teachers Notes Series

600.00

Book Code : 238
Number of Pages : 253
Author : Rasheed Ahmed
Language : English
Publishers : Read and Write Publications

 

Categories: ,

Description

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Unit-1: Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry …………………………………………………………………….. 8
1.1: Relative Atomic Mass: ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
1.2: Calculations of Empirical/Molecular Formula: ……………………………………………………………… 9
1.3: Chemical Equations: ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
1.4: End of Chapter Past Paper Questions ……………………………………………………………………… 14
Unit-2: Atomic Structure …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22
2.1: Atom ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22
2.2: Electronic Configuration …………………………………………………………………………………………. 23
2.3: Ionisation Energy: HOIE …………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
2.4: End of Chapter Past Paper Questions ……………………………………………………………………… 29
Unit-3: Chemical Bonding ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34
3.1: Ionic or Electrovalent Bond: ……………………………………………………………………………………. 34
3.2: Covalent Bonding: …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36
3.3: Coordinate or Dative Covalent Bonding: …………………………………………………………………… 37
3.4: Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory ………………………………………………………….. 39
3.5: Orbital Hybridization ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41
3.6: Metallic Bond: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 45
3.7: Inter Molecular Forces of Attractions: ………………………………………………………………………. 46
3.8: End of chapter past paper questions ……………………………………………………………………….. 49
Unit-4: States of Matter …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56
4.1: Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) of Gases ………………………………………………………………… 56
4.2: Kinetic Molecular Model of Liquids ………………………………………………………………………….. 59
4.3: Solids …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 60
4.4: Macromolecules (Giant Covalent Structure): …………………………………………………………….. 61
4.5: Carbon Nanoparticles: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 61
4.6: Metallic Lattices: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 62
4.7: End of chapter past paper questions ……………………………………………………………………….. 64
Unit-5: Chemical Energetics ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 70
5.1: Standard Conditions for Standard Enthalpy Changes ………………………………………………… 71
5.2: Measuring Enthalpy Change of the Reactions …………………………………………………………… 73
5.3: Hess’s law ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 74
5.4: Activation Energy (Ea) …………………………………………………………………………………………… 76
5.5: End of chapter past paper questions: ………………………………………………………………………. 78
Unit-6: Electrochemistry …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 84
6.1: End of chapter past paper questions ……………………………………………………………………….. 86
Unit-7: Equilibria …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 90
7.1: Irreversible and Reversible reactions ……………………………………………………………………….. 90
7.2: Le-Chatlier’s Principle ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 91
7.3: Equilibrium Constant Kc …………………………………………………………………………………………. 92
7.4: Haber’s Process of Ammonia Formation ………………………………………………………………….. 95
7.5: Contact Process of Sulphuric Acid Formation …………………………………………………………… 95
7.6: Bronsted – Lowery Theory of Acids and Bases: ………………………………………………………… 96
7.7: End of chapter past paper questions ……………………………………………………………………….. 98
Unit-8: Reaction Kinetics ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 106
8.1: Rate of Reaction …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 106
8.2: Boltzmann Distribution Curve and Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate ……………….. 106
8.3: Catalysis …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 107
8.4: Enzymes – Biological Catalyst: ……………………………………………………………………………… 108
8.5: End of chapter past paper questions ……………………………………………………………………… 110
Unit-9: The Periodic Table: Chemical Periodicity …………………………………………………………… 114
9.1: Periodicity of Physical Properties of Third Period Elements ………………………………………. 114
9.2: Periodicity of Chemical Properties of Third Period Elements …………………………………….. 116
9.3: Reaction of Sodium and Magnesium with Water ……………………………………………………… 119
9.4: End of chapter past paper questions ……………………………………………………………………… 120
Unit-10: Group 2 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 128
10.1: General Characteristic Properties of Group II Elements ……………………………………………. 128
10.2: Behavior of Group II Elements Oxides, Hydroxides and Carbonates ………………………….. 129
10.3: Solubility of Group II Metal Sulphates …………………………………………………………………….. 129
10.4: End of chapter past paper questions ……………………………………………………………………… 131
Unit-11: Group 17 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 136
11.1: General Characteristics ………………………………………………………………………………………… 136
11.2: Reaction of Metal Halide with Conc. H2SO4 …………………………………………………………….. 137
11.3: Disproportion Reaction …………………………………………………………………………………………. 138
Unit-12: Nitrogen & Sulphur ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 142
12.1: Industrial Importance of Ammonia & Its Compounds………………………………………………… 142
12.2: Pollution ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 143
12.3: Oxides of Nitrogen – Air Pollution ………………………………………………………………………….. 143
Unit-13: An Introduction to Organic Chemistry ………………………………………………………………… 146
13.1: Classification of Organic Compounds (Structural) ……………………………………………………. 146
13.2: Types of Chemical Formulae ………………………………………………………………………………… 146
13.3: IUPAC Rules of Nomenclature (Assign Name to Organic Substances) ………………………. 148
13.4: Characteristic Organic Reactions…………………………………………………………………………… 154
13.5: Isomers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 163
Unit-14: Hydrocarbons ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 168
14.1: Alkanes ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 168
14.2: Free Radical Substitution Reaction: (characteristic of alkanes-unsaturated) ……………….. 168
14.3: Alkenes ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 169
14.4: Addition Reactions ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 170
14.5: Oxidation of Alkenes ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 172
14.6: Polymerization …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 173
14.7: Problems to Dispose of Plastic Wastes ………………………………………………………………….. 174
14.8: Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil ………………………………………………………………………….. 174
14.9: Cracking of Alkanes …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 175
Unit-15: Halogen Derivatives …………………………………………………………………………………………… 178
15.1: Physical Properties ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 178
15.2: Reactions of Halogenoalkanes ……………………………………………………………………………… 178
15.3: Uses of Halogenoalkanes …………………………………………………………………………………….. 181
Unit-16: Hydroxy Compounds …………………………………………………………………………………………. 184
16.1: Physical Properties of Alcohols ……………………………………………………………………………… 184
16.2: Manufacture of Ethanol ………………………………………………………………………………………… 184
16.3: Reactions of Alkanols …………………………………………………………………………………………… 185
16.4: Distinction between primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols ……………………………………. 188
16.5: Tri – Iodo Methane Test ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 188
Unit-17: Carbonyl Compounds ………………………………………………………………………………………… 192
17.1: Preparation of Carbonyl Compounds ……………………………………………………………………… 192
17.2: Nucleophilic Addition of Hydrogen Cyanide …………………………………………………………….. 192
17.3: Test For Carbonyl Compounds ……………………………………………………………………………… 194
Unit-18: Carboxylic Acids & Derivatives ………………………………………………………………………….. 196
18.1: Formation of Carboxylic Acids ………………………………………………………………………………. 196
18.2: Reactions of Carboxylic Acids ……………………………………………………………………………….. 196
18.3: Formation of Esters ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 197
18.4: Commercial Uses of Esters …………………………………………………………………………………… 198
18.5: Infra-red Spectroscopy …………………………………………………………………………………………. 198

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