Economics A2-Level P-4 Classified/Topical

880.00

Book Code : 150
Number of Pages : 391
Author : Imran Latif
Language : English
Publishers : Read and Write Publications

 

Categories: ,

Description

TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION B (ESSAYS)
UNIT: 1 UTILITY & BUDGET LINE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
1.1 UTILITY THEORY & CONSUMER EQUILIBRIUM …………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
1.2 BUDGET LINE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19
1.3 INDIFFERENCE CURVE ANALYSIS & TYPES OF GOODS ………………………………………………………………………………….. 20
UNIT: 2 PRODUCTION & COST …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
UNIT: 3 MARKET STRUCTURES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36
3.1 RULES OF FIRM’S BEHAVIOUR ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 36
3.2 PRICE AND OUTPUT IN MARKET STRUCTURES …………………………………………………………………………………………… 37
3.3 COMPARISON OF MARKET STRUCTURES ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38
3.4 NORMAL & ABNORMAL PROFITS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 50
3.5 CONVERSION OF PERFECT COMPETITION TO MONOPOLY …………………………………………………………………………… 51
3.6 OBJECTIVES OF FIRMS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 55
3.7 PRICE DISCRIMINATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 60
3.8 CONTESTABLE MARKETS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62
UNIT:4 ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY AND MARKET FAILURE ……………………………………………………………………….. 64
4.1 EXTERNALIZES, CONCEPTS & EFFECTS ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 64
4.2 ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY AND MARKET FAILURE ………………………………………………………………………………………… 66
4.3 POLICIES TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 84
UNIT:5 LABOR MARKET ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 88
5.1 INDIVIDUAL’S SUPPLY OF LABOR ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 88
5.2 WAGE DETERMINATION IN PERFECT AND IMPERFECT MARKETS ……………………………………………………………………. 89
5.3 WAGE DIFFERENTIALS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 102
5.4 ROLE OF TRADE UNIONS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 109
5.5 ECONOMIC RENT AND TRANSFER EARNINGS ………………………………………………………………………………………… 114
UNIT:6 INEQUALITY AND POLICIES TO REDISTRIBUTE INCOME …………………………………………………………… 116
UNIT:7 NATIONAL INCOME ACCOUNTING ………………………………………………………………………………………. 118
7.1 NATIONAL INCOME CALCULATIONS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 118
7.2 PROBLEMS OF CALCULATING NATIONAL INCOME …………………………………………………………………………………… 119
7.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF ECONOMIC RECESSION ………………………………………………………………………………………… 120
UNIT:8 ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT …………………………………………………………………………… 122
8.1 STANDARD OF LIVING …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 122
8.2 SOURCES & POLICES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH ………………………………………………………………………………………. 126
8.3 EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 127
8.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF DEVELOPING ECONOMIES …………………………………………………………………………………….. 134
8.5 POLICIES TO PROMOTE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT …………………………………………………………………………………. 144
UNIT:9 THEORY OF INCOME & EMPLOYMENT …………………………………………………………………………………. 156
9.1 DETERMINANTS OF INVESTMENT ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 156
9.2 NATIONAL INCOME EQUILIBRIUM ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 157
9.3 INFLATIONARY & DEFLATIONARY GAP ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158
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9.4 MULTIPLIER PROCESS & ACCELERATOR ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 158
9.5 STRENGTH OF MULTIPLIER ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 165
9.6 PARADOX OF THRIFT ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 166
UNIT:10 INTEREST RATE DETERMINATION AND CHANGES …………………………………………………………………… 168
LIQUIDITY PREFERENCE THEORY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 168
UNIT:11 MACROECONOMIC POLICES ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 178
FISCAL, MONETARY & SUPPLY-SIDE POLICIES …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 178
UNIT:12 UNEMPLOYMENT ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 194
12.1 CAUSES OR TYPES OF UNEMPLOYMENT ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 194
12.2 EFFECTS OF UNEMPLOYMENT ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 198
12.3 MEASUREMENT OF UNEMPLOYMENT ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 198
UNIT:13 CONFLICT OF MACROECONOMIC AIMS ………………………………………………………………………………… 202
UNIT:14 GENERAL QUESTIONS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 212
1. UTILITY & BUDGET LINE …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 224
O/N 11/P41/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 224
O/N 10/P43/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 226
O/N 09/P42/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 227
2. PRODUCTION COST & MARKET STRUCTURES ………………………………………………………………………… 229
O/N 17/P43/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 229
M/J 17/P41/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 230
M/J 15/P43/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 233
O/N 14/P42/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 235
O/N 14/P41/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 237
M/J 14/P41/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 239
O/N 13/P42/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 241
O/N 13/P41/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 243
M/J 13/P42/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 245
M/J 13/P41/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 247
O/N 12/P43/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 249
M/J 12/P42/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 251
O/N 10/P41/P42/Q1 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 253
O/N 06/P4/Q1 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 255
O/N 04/P4/Q1 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 257
M/J 03/P4/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 259
3. MARKET FAILURE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 261
M/J 16/P43/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 261
O/N 15/P43/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 263
M/J 07/P2/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 265
O/N 05/P4/Q1 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 267
O/N 02/P2/Q1 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 269
4. LABOUR MARKET ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 271
O/N 03/P4/Q1 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 271
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5. ECONOMIC GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT ……………………………………………………………………………….. 273
O/N 17/P42/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 273
M/J 17/P43/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 275
M/J 16/P42/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 277
O/N 15/P42/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 279
O/N 15/P41/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 281
M/J 15/P42/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 283
M/J 15/P41/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 285
O/N 14/P43/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 287
M/J 14/P42/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 289
O/N 12/P42/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 291
O/N 12/P41/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 293
M/J 12/P41/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 295
O/N 11/P43/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 297
O/N 11/P42/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 299
O/N 09/P41/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 301
M/J 09/P4/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 303
O/N 08/P4/Q1 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 305
M/J 08/P4/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 307
O/N 07/P4/Q1 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 309
M/J 07/P4/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 311
M/J 06/P4/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 313
M/J 05/P4/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 315
M/J 02/P4/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 317
6. MACROECONOMIC POLICIES ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 319
M/J 17/P42/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 319
M/J 16/P41/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 322
O/N 16/P43/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 324
O/N 16/P42/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 326
O/N 16/P41/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 328
O/N 13/P43/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 330
M/J 11/P42/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 332
M/J 11/P41/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 334
M/J 10/P41/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 336
7. KEYNESIAN THEORY OF INCOME & EMPLOYMENT …………………………………………………………………. 338
M/J 10/P42/Q1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 338
9. UNEMPLOYMENT ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 340
O/N 17/P41/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 340
MAR 16/P42/Q1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 342

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